Determination of Antibacterial Activity of Nicotiana Tabacum Against Bacteria Isolated From Teeth Gums of Smokers and Non Smokers
Keywords:S. Aureus, M. Mucilaginous, E. Coli, S. Hyicus, S. Cohnii, Antibacterial Activity
This study aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of Nicotiana tabacum against bacteria isolated from the gums of smokers and non-smokers.
For this study, 100 gum samples were collected from dental clinics in Peshawar using sterile disposal swabs. The samples were transferred to Abasyn University in Peshawar, streaked on Nutrient agar plates. The obtained cultures were sub-cultured and processed for further identification by Gram staining and biochemical tests.
It was found that, out of a total of 100 samples, 60 were positive (35 non-smokers and 25 smokers), and 40 were negative. Among 60 samples, 12 species were identified, of which M. mucilaginous (24% of the smoker) and S. aureus (44% of the non-smoker) showed high prevalence. After the analysis of both the dried and chewed N. tabacum’s antibacterial activity, it was observed that dried tobacco extract showed maximum activity against S. hyicus (16.33 ± 0.57), M. mucilaginous (16.33 ± 0.57) and least activity against E. coli (10.7 ± 0.46). In contrast, chewed tobacco extract showed maximum activity against S. cohnii (15.33 ± 0.57), while the remaining isolates were resistant.
The outcome of the studies concluded that the prevalence of bacteria isolated from smoker's samples was higher and more pathogenic than in non-smoker’s samples.
Rasool Hassan BA. Medicinal plants (importance and uses). Pharmaceut Anal Acta. 2012;3(10):2153-435
Sharma Y, Dua D, Nagar A, Srivastava NS. Antibacterial activity, phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of stem of Nicotiana tabacum. International journal of pharmaceutical sciences and research. 2016 Mar 1;7(3):1156.
Yan N, Du Y, Liu X, Zhang H, Liu Y, Zhang Z. A review on bioactivities of tobacco cembranoid diterpenes. Biomolecules. 2019 Jan 16;9(1):30
Hyun TK. CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing to improve abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Botanica Serbica. 2020;44(2):121-7
Orji FA, Ugbogu OC, Ugbogu EA, Barbabosa-Pliego A, Monroy JC, Elghandour MMMY, et al. Pathogenic flora composition and overview of the trends used for bacterial pathogenicity identifications. Microb Pathog [Internet]. 2018;121:139–46
Chawla R, Shetty K, Prakash A, Rathore A, Saroch SJ. Orthodontics and oral microflora: synergism or parasitism. J Interdiscipl Med Dent Sci. 2018;6(234):2-5
Chowdhury AP, Singh RR, Bharadwaj B, Bhuyana MP, Jyoti S. Qualitative Assessment on Isolated Tartar Forming Bacteria from Dental Caries by Pattern of Screening, Assembling and Antibiotic Sensitivity. Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science. 2019 Feb;7(1):140-57
Bilgin Çine N, Berber İ, Avşar C. Identification and protein fingerprinting of staphylococcus aureus species isolated from tooth decay. Proc Natl Acad Sci India Sect B Biol Sci [Internet]. 2017;87(1):13–22
Smith AC, Hussey MA. Gram stain protocols. American Society for Microbiology. 2005;1
Shoaib M, Muzammil I, Hammad M, Bhutta ZA, Yaseen I. A mini-review on commonly used biochemical tests for identification of bacteria. A Mini-Review on Commonly used Biochemical Tests for Identification of Bacteria. 2020 Jun 14;54(1):8-
Facklam R, Elliott JA. Identification, classification, and clinical relevance of catalase-negative, gram-positive cocci, excluding the streptococci and enterococci. Clinical microbiology reviews. 1995 Oct;8(4):479-95
Bergey DH. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1994.
Winn Washington C, Allen SD, Janda WM, Koneman EW, Procop GW, Schreckenberger PC, Woods GL. Koneman's Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiolgy. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2006
MacFaddin JF. Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) and thermonuclease (Tnase) tests. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed., ed. by MacFaddin, JF, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. 2000:136-59
Harley J, P Harley J. Laboratory exercises in microbiology. The McGraw − Hill; 2002
Shekins OO, Dorathy EU, Labaran ML, Joel P. Phytochemical screening of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and its effects on some haematological parameters and histopathology of liver and brain in male rats. Int J Biochem Res Rev. 2016;14(4):1-9
Hassim N, Markom M, Anuar N, Baharum SN. Solvent selection in extraction of essential oil and bioactive compounds from Polygonum minus. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2014;14(13):1440-4
Bouyahya A, Abrini J, El-Baabou A, Bakri Y, Dakka N. Determination of phenol content and antibacterial activity of five medicinal plants ethanolic extracts from North-West of Morocco. J Plant Pathol Microbiol. 2016;7(342):2
Parekh J, Chanda S. Antibacterial and phytochemical studies on twelve species of Indian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2007;10(2)